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Full text of "Superintendents of the Yellowstone National Parks Monthly Report, February 1919"

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The Director, 
Rational Park Service, 
Department of the Interior, 
Washington, D. C. 


I hare the honor to submit ny report of conditions 
in the park for the month of February, 1919s 

arm At siathers. 

The Tollowstone Rational Park waa set aside by 
Act of Congress Earoh 1, 1872, {Jeos. 2474 and 2475, H, 3., 
17 Stat,, 32) as a pleasuring-ground for the benefit and 
enjoyment of the people, and placed under tho control of 
the Secretary of the Interior, who was authorised to make 
each rale* and regulations as he deems necossary for the 
oare and aaintonanoe of the park. It is situated princi- 
pally in northwestern Wyoming, but laps over a little more 
than two miles into Montana on the north, and about two 
miles into Montana and Idaho on the west. Its dimensions 
are about 62 miles north and south, and about 54 miles east 
and west, giving an area of about 3,348 square miles, or 
2,142,720 acres. Its altitude is 6,000 to 11,000 feet. 

The park was governed by civilian superintendents, 
assisted by a few scouts, from the time it was set aside 
until August 10, 1886, when, under authority contained In 
the Sundry Civil Bill, approved March 3, 1883, at the request 
of the Seoretary of the Interior, the Secretary of rar de- 
tailed troops of United Statos Cavalry to protect it, the 
ooenandlng officer acting as park superintendent under the 
direct orders of the Seoretary of the Interior. On Ootober 
16, 1916, by mutual agreement of the heads of the Interior 
and War Departments, the troops were withdrawn from the park 
and their work of patrollng and protecting the park was again 
taken over by oivllians selected for the purpose by the 
Secretary of the Interior. A clause contained in the Sundry 
Civil Bill, approved Jane 12, 1917, (Public Ho. 21, 65th 
Congress! made it obligatory to use troops for patrollng 
the park, and they were returned by the V/ar Department on 


June 26, 1917, relieving the perk superintendent of so much 
of the duties as pertained to "proteotion". She Sundry 
Oivil Bill, approved July 1, 1910, again made provision* for 
the employment of a foroe of civilian rangers to protect the 
park, and a foroe of twenty-five rangers was organised and 
took over this work at the end of the 1918 tourist season; 
and Port Yellowstone was formally abandoned at the olose of 
Eoveraber 1, 1918. 

She Act of Congress whioh appropriated funds for 
proteotion of the park, also placed the appropriations for 
maintenance and improvement under the Secretary of the In- 
terior, instead of under the Secretary of War, as heretofore, 
and permitted the combining of all work under this office. 

The local offloe of the 0. S. Weather Bureau, 
Department of Agrloulture, is in charge of Mr. 0. a. Lawton, 
observer. Temperature and precipitation records are also 
made by the rangers at several of the stations, for the 
leather Bureau. 

The United States Department of Justioe is repre- 
sented by Mr. John W. Meldrum, United statee Commissioner, 
who is authorised to try all violators of park rales, reg- 
ulations or laws. Mr. Holdrom has been away on leave sinoe 
January 21st. 

l'ark Headquarters for all departments and most 
of the concessioners is located at Kaomoth Hot Springs. 
269 miles of telephone line ooncsot Headquarters with sub- 
stations. A hydro-el eotrio power plant furnishes the light 
for buildings and grounds at Headquarters. Water, electric 
currant, and telephone service are furnished other departments 
of the Government in the perk by the Bational Park Service, 
without charge. During jf e bwumy. the hydro-eleotrio power 
plant was run daily fron 4j00 p.m. until noon, and was con- 
tinued during the afternoon when any necessity existed for 
so doing. 



The mean temperature was 19.2, which woa 0.4 below 
normal. The ,total precipitation according to the weather 
report* was 1.64 inches of water, whloh Is 0$ inoh a lesa than 
the normal mount for February. Total snowfall for wrath, 7.S 
18.2 inches. At the and of February snow laid on the ground 
in quantltos as follows: 



-ater Oontent. 

Mammoth Hot Springs 

o 10.4 


1.96 in. 




'"^5.07 " 


13. 24. 


''" 3.77 " 

South Entrance 

35 50. 


t)5 9.94 " 




Soda Butte 

j is. 


ji.i* 3.62 " 

A copy of the Monthly Meteorological Report is inolosed 


The following-named regular employees were oar- 
ried on the pay rolls during the month of February: 

1 Chief Clerk (acting Superintendent) 

1 Purchasing Clerk and Speoial Disbursing Agent 

6 Clerks 

1 Assistant Sngineer 

2 HLeotricians 

4 Assistant Chief Bangers 
6 Flret-olaoa Park Bangora 
I f 16 Park Bangers 
2 Linemen 

1 Plumber 

2 Telephone Switchboard Operators 

3 Foremen 
1 Handyman 
1 Laborer 
1 Watchman 

In addition to these, two assistant electrician^ 
were employed, temporarily, to assist in operating the power 
Plant, pending certification of eligiblee for appointmsnt by 
the Civil Serrloe Commission, and several carpenters, gaa- 
englnemen, ohanffeurs, etc, were hired for temporary service, 
to keep up the work of construction and maintenance at Head- 
quarters and on the Gardiner slide road. 



Assistant "hief liange* &BSS 'Mfrrldff (Acting '-'hiof ?-ongo; 
wont to the Buffalo hn via Corrfinor, frovieo ountain, and "Vwor 

£i» on Fobruary let and the following doysj mde « careful emnd- 
:mtion of the winter range for :;ane, o ojtfition of tho range 

where tho tane buffalo wore when attacked with disease: assisted In 
rouM'lr , up tho tunc buffalo and investigating the cauoo of disease, 
returning to !Ioadruarters on "eoruar;- 14th. Inlanoe of the 

nsnth he worked out fron "oadquartecrs. 

asistant "hief Jiangs* Janes n . prooka r omlnod in oharge of 
the southern division including Bechlo , '.ver, Lake, '.i-^-on, 

and '.-ylvan -*so 'iotriots. ;atrollod tho '■ 

ricts, then ease in to Headquarters via nako Ivor, l.unb and r«ke 
lone, arrivij^ here Tol -,t. 

' at Headquarter:: ' , ra- 

ti ototioTc i. Lne, 

od up n oable to be inetalled later an a croo -ing ever 
in the southwest cor nor of the park* 

Headquarters, In charge of the ' e. 

m Tin Tower Falls by ' jtorlnariaa 

fros the Duroau of niml Industry 

assisting to invontiate the cause of . . 

tade sever*! patrols to or and return* 

'.rollotl froa oadquartors 
to rrorice ' ountain, van i-al:c 

to the uTalo Vara to assist with tho tane buffalo while investigation 
of oauoe of disease waa in progress. >tal of 


■t-claon ark danger _^_ . aoo" j b o was statisnod in charge at 
Iks ssffsls saa* ■ id there was u listed \; >ne 1 iksrss* i lUsasl 
assistance was neeossary for several days during the epideede sasng the 

lo, In rou 'Li; Is, burning carcassee of those that 

diod, and olding and feeding tho hs . 

o-clo.;-.:; ;ing was stationed at 

and narto a specialty of bunting und trapping wolves and coyotes. 
eonnoetion with this work, ho mde frequent patrols ovor our root inpart- 
a ^winter ranco for wild animals, rauaely opulehre fountain Tie 
vorts to Blaci ' r" r-'ek. 'to tr coyotes and one cray wolf. 

.'Irat-olaas Park Rancor rater IwrwB was In ohareo of 
"allatln tatlon In tho :iorthwest corner of the park, and was assis- 
ted In petrolll - tiiat district by Ranger v our. las a. 

First-class Hangar Thad c . Pound ni In oharge of Cfcrdiner 
Station througiiout tho month, and d"id sons road patrolling with rwtor- 
eycle In that vicinity, under direction of Acting chief 'oBrlde. 

'irat-class ar* : '*nror lienry Andoraon was in oharge of 
oda Itatto District, and was assisted by danger oward until February 
21st, and beginning February 23d by ranger Oeo. inn who was transferred 
to that rtation fron Tower 'alls. Anderson also nade a speeialty of 
hunting and trapping ooyotes and wolves, and his aotlwities in this 
respect ex t ended as far west as Black Tall Deer reek. '■'■* killed 
10 ooyotes and reports finding remains of six aore that he had 
killed by poison, so badly destroyed by birds that they were net 
worth skinning. lie traveled 371 nlles during the aonth. 

lrst-olaas Park Ranger oby oy . lsdoa »as in charge of 
Lake Station, assisted by Sanger axaanorToh. These two dangers 
visited :veadqu*rters once during the aonth, ooning in on February 
2d and returning February «th. atsanovioh also oans in with rooks 
on February 21 t, and returned to his station leaving here on the 
following day. 

Bark .'anger Ford : J urdy was in oharge of iverslds tatlon, 
snd was assisted In patrolling that district by Ranger Townaend. 

Park Ranger . . uahaan was in charge of : orria station, 
and patrolled that district and assisted in looking after the 
repairs to telephone lines. 

Bark Ranger -'sacs V« lupais was in charrc of Crevice 
tatlon, where he was assisted part of the aonth by Sanger Boy 
?re*ler. as is a deputy gaise warden for the Majbs of '.'ontana, and 
oo-operateo with the Forest Rangers now engaged in protecting the elk 
outside of the park In the Absoroka ational Forest opposite his 

lark Hanger »rnnk £. dness was in sharge of r»eohler 
station. In the southwest oomer o^ the park, assisted by ranger 
•'ainee vueaell. Patrols fron this tatlon were nade under the 
direction of .'•* si slant chief Brooks. 

lark Kanger .'. •■» ■line was in ebarge of make Klver 
District, and was assisted V. .'anger Atrdue. 

- — 

ho ZSA, and mde extenoiTo patrols 

_ jtriet, especially 

' r '.ring, assisted by "ar^or :.elley. !!e alco 
iielped at tl> nivo. 

23d bo was transferred fe 

toot Polio. oporto 'lorlnc trarolod 230 liour 

rakix * total of 315 niles. 

ear ilia* i. ins was stationed at Jleadqusxters, wljere 
2io woo retained with the oxpect it it it would bo -tooosnexy to food 

the wild anlnala hay, but tho weather was ao nild that Uila was not 
necessary. *i onployed to Use Huffalo a returr., 

to "bwor Falls ;rn, and in '.ouartors. 

also collected a lot of wooi' i automobile i slier at 

never' o uno, and aesiotod 
Us aorial treraray to put aero -s :r of 

tho park, whoro tho rivor la too wide to bridge* and Tory dlffleeli to 
erooo wlion tho water In the r:prine, " o is a tire when it 

is Tory noeesaary to crocs it in p •■■.Tor poachers. 

* an 

■feet or. "-Iru 

->lla y was stationed at Tower "alls with Reap* 
'J At station when Inn was transferred to 

21st, when he c 

ng that it 

is stationed at eda 'utte u *il tho 
»rs. oi^mtioa lias been 

effectiTo at the clooe of 

ed ob follows! ^sejC. 
llatln ~tatlon> ov 7. 7 rosier at roriee -tatio 
»!wi he wu so .•'■• ! the Duffaic 

at Sardlaor o he aerie patrols totaling 274 :llos; 

■ \noTloh at ?Ake tationi Jsuaes ftMso.Xl a t Beohler taUon/ 
tation. -pitm w&» »•' 
■tation 'Ait. cono in to I'ttadquarters with . d* Orooka on 1 

renal "I, . s Ticin' i end of the nsnth. 


'-or teve ' U&as 
trained lion dogs, orts 

liowoTor, auceeadot: 

linsr to ; oda SsrUe with his 
«d out. 

lino of traps, but turret' in only three ooyote oklns and ens skunk 
as a result of hie labors. 

fc er:ploy«o» wer- 
talning ©files , pcwor 

J>6»» *»t«r and aawor ayst«ns otc.j art.: ot; 

:'."- ■ -,-lroo *.:-.. ."." iajarwv«Mst aorli - i - . " "■■. v.u"'.' :v-v • at .■.-:■■. ~ 
"• '•<='■' • ■-■ ■ -. : ^ -er %)'■ .'•--•:.>, oJ Ivil ;vl ozr 


• ta ""'' ..■:- i WftB BUboistod 

at our vj r 

rka. i id 

in MMU 

! II " SW 

- • 1 to G 
'"' » f»« 

sury 23d 
inclusive, l' rays. 

7 days. 

i '.■ , 


. ___'■ ■....;..-. he 

r»nth o 

■ ' ■ ■ ■ frl, ott»," . , , •' r . . oward, isorvi?;^ undor tonpor 
Mre at ' rijary 2fi . 

fores At the el< 

existed 1 ■: on roculer 

X >'hief ?m> 
4 *&i ■ . 

1 i.oiau. 

1 Baffele Keeper. 


incorsonto are be 
to Hkt pMtt oaitiens now filled by 

tnporar^' or.ployeo*. 


Dwri iiary employees of this office purchased ar 

Gaviags Stsaps to the anount ocT ?57.82, and cashed steeps at 
the postofficts a -ag $195.50 


The saddle sj*1 draft aniimls net in utso wore lajpt on winter 
pasture at Yancey's, with one teamster In charge of the herd. It 

•■sees'sary to food considerable of the hay that was pat up than 
for that purpose, durisy -O"* 


; i'or oik, deer « , antelope eovrtinuod 

first-class, aisd tfesre was no necessity of feeding the* at any point. 
About 40 ' Say were fed to the tame buffalo herd* which had to 

bo fccr* up on account o at broke out WMi it. 


•3 occurred during the 

>ut a fire that was biasing three feet 
above tlw* to- ;orch of tli® old uartomastor 

,ce. at 11: SO ... Whruwrj twk, m of 

ooal.wood, a -4 exeelaior aane farohj light .as exec 

windy, and t Co* a serious fire wore excel lent* 

lug - * a B,fcoT ® that lad been put- up la the 

building focorly used as a stone stable and now being roaodoled ia 
a garage «■* s'sop. :'.vjvoral otoves were put up temporarily in this 
build "it wans for werls, sanawrta war 

; idea, weps not 
wirec blow ono down when the stove was full of fire. 

Doth instances are attributable to carelessness on tho part of enployoes. 

::. ■ 

■ bm tasr .".Ivor*, 

was enjoyed to a considerable extent by local parties. 

— — 


Aside from the work being done under contract , 
building a road around the Gardiner 31ide, and the remodeling 
of buildings at Headquarters , under the direction of Br. 
Goodwin, but little improvement work was done. 

The el oo trio lane were engaged in operating the 
power plant; the linemen kept the telephone lines in repair, 
and worked on repair of equipment; and the plumber/made re- 
pairs to the plumbing when frozen, turned off water when 
houses were vacated by employees and turned it on again when 
the houses were reoooupied. In addition, those employees 
did considerable work in connection with repairs and main- 
tenance of physioal Improvements, under direotion of Ur. 

The work accomplished in the park in the way of 
improvements and construction under direotion of Civil Kn- 
ginoer Goodwin during the month of February was approximately 
as follows: 

In general, during the month the work consisted of 
repairing transportation and other equipment and putting it 
in shape for next season's work; repairing and remodeling 
buildings at Headquarters, consisting of changing one double 
set of offioers* quarters into a four- flat building, and 
changing one of the stone stables into a machine shop building, 
and other miscellaneous work. The flats were completed and 
the work on the stone stable was well towards completion at 
the close of February, 

General office and engineering work was oarrled 
on, and also the inspection and oversight of the contract 
work being done on the road in the Gardiner Canyon. The 
contractors. Gibbon and Reed Company, continued their work 
under their contract approved Sovomber 4th, for the construc- 
tion of a road through the Gardiner Canyon. Sxoopt for a 
few days during the month, the weather was very favorable for 
concrete work and work on the dry rook walls. Due to the 
foot that the steam shovel was out of commission the greater 
part of the month, undergoing repairs to the boiler, a poor 
showing was made in excavating. About 35 to 40 men were em- 
ployed on the different work during the month. Vv'ork on the 
concrete culverts was commenced and the excavation for three 
of them finished. The concrete abutments at the new bridge 
location were completed, and the 75-foot steel span bridge 
removed from the old position and placed on the new abutments. 


Thm quant it lea allotted in the estimate for the month consisted 
of 947.4 ou. yds. class 1 excavation; 594.3 ou. yds. class 2 
excavation; 166 ou. yds. class 3 excavation; 127.9 ou. yds. 
class 2 wet excavation; 72.92 cu. yds. rainforoed concrete 
and revetment walls; 53<i ou. yds. dry rook walla; and 67.95 
cu. yds. cancreto in bridge abutments. 

?he worse acoompliahed this month brings the exoava- 
tion quantities to about 30 per cent of the probable totals. 
She reinforced concrete for revetment walls is completed, and 
the loose laid rook walls are about 75 per oent completed. 

On a monetary value the payment a indicate that the 
contract is about 40 per cent completed. As a matter of feet, 
incidental work \siich they have done and cannot be allowed 
in the estimate, makes the work somewhat over 60 per cent 
completed; and they should, with good weather and no unfore- 
seen obataclea, be able to finish within the oontraot time. 

2he ofi'ioo engineering work: for the month, aside 
from the work Incidental to the oarrying on of the Gibbon and 
Reed oontraot, oonsleted principally of making the plana and 
estimates for the new concrete aroh under-pass bridge proposed 
for the east entrance road, near Sylvan Pass. Some work on 
the plena for the new shop was also done during the month. 


The usual report of monies collected, due, trans- 
mitted, etc., together with money orders, oheoka, etc,, tot- 
alise $67.05, as called for In the reporte on Fonaa 10-59 and 
10-60, are lnoloaed. Please acknowledge receipt. 


Ho changes were noted in the natural phenomena 
of the park during the month of February. 

nuTOL coiraaoHs. 

Seven visitors registered at the north entrance dur- 
ing the month, as shown by the inoloeed copy of Chief Ranger's 
Monthly Travel Report for February. A traok went to the Buf- 
falo Fam on February 3rd and returned February 5th. frame 
are still able to travel this road, ivlth some work shoveling 
out drifts end using a road grader, the temporary road over 
the hill between Headquartera and Oardlner waa Kept open to 
the end of February. Heavy snows the latter part of the month 


finally blocked it by drifting so it wm tapassable for any 
sort of conveyance on March 1st and 2nd, but the weather oleared 
and it was again opened for notor vebicleo on March 3rd and 
has been leapt open since* 


Special visitors were reoorded as followst 

Mr. 2. H. Moorman, Auditor for the Yellowstone Parte Cash- 
ing Company, visited Mammoth Camp on business on February 15th 
to 16th. 

Governor Burnquist, of Minnesota, and his aide, Major 
t;. 0. Garris, while visiting his wife's relatives in Living- 
ston, oams up on the train on February 15th, oame to Mammoth 
and returned in Walter Shaw's automobile, returning to Living- 
ston on the same train, naturally his time was very nuoh lim- 
ited, and I did not know of thie vlelt until he had left. 

Mr. 0. A. MoSlroy, from the Missoula office of the D. 
S. Forest Service, called officially on February 24th, relative 
to an investigation he was making on a report of game viola- 
tion in Montana, near the northwest oornor of the parte, by a 
prominent resident of Gallatin County during the post hunt- 
ing season. He was enroute to our Gallatin Ranger Station, 
via Boseman, to interview Hanger Lawaon there. 


The only complaint received taring tho month was 
from the oltlsons of Gardiner to the of foot that the contrac- 
tor on the Gardiner Canyon road was contaminating the river 
by dumping manure and other refuse in the water. This was 
referred to Mr. Ooo*rin, who Investigated it and found that 
the contractors had used some hay to help in stopping the 
water from coming into the axoavatlons for walls along the 
river, some manure was found in with tho hay; and the contrac- 
tors were immediately given Instructions to remove everything 
of that nature from the water and the banks of the river, 
*iich instructions were immediately carried out. 


The weathor and snow conditions for wild animals re- 
mained excellent, and all seen were reported in splendid con- 
dition. Notwithstanding this, however, several thousand elk 
are reported to be ranging outside of the park, down the Yel- 
lowstone Talley in the Absaroka national Forest. Ranger Henry 
Anderson reports finding 12 elk killed by wolves in hie die- 



trict, and occasionally one dies from old age; but, on the 
whole, the losses thus far have been negligible. 

WolTea and , coyotes; ftro wolves were idlled during 
the month, one by Ranger Dewing and the other by Hunter 31- 
kins. Signs seen, however, indicate the presence of several 
ranging from Ussmoth to Soda Butte, and in the Soda Butte 
distriot they have been responsible for the death of quite 
a number of elk* Efforts are being made to exterminate 
then. Forty-five coyotes were killed during the month, by 
hunters and rangers. Of these. Hanger Anderson reports 6 
that were poisoned and ruined by birds so that their skins 
were worthless and not taken off. 

Mountain lions: teve Blklns was employed with his 
trained dogs throughout the month hunting lions, but the fact 
that he seoured none indicates that they are becoming scarce. 
His services were valuable, however. In that he killed 10 
ooyotes and 1 grey wolf during the month. 

Otter? Assistant Chief Hanger Brooks reported hav- 
ing seen a number of otter, and seeing signs of otter in most 
all streams in the southern part of the park. 

Buffalo i She 3-year-old buffalo bull shipped to 
V. A. Johnson, Mexico, Ho., by express, on January 33th, reached 
him in good condition. 

on February 12th a 2-year-old bull from the tome 
herd was shipped to the City of San Francisco, by express, 
charges collect, under your authority dated January 23, 1919. 
He, also, readied his destination in good shape. 

On February 6th I made a special report on the death 
of 31 buffalo of the tome herd, and investigation by It. X. 
'tollman, a veterinarian of the Bureau of Animal Industry 
February 3rd to 5th. After this report was made, one more 
buffalo died of the disease, and the carcasses of three more 
that had died previously were found, making a total of 35 
that are known to have died. She report as to ages of ani- 
mals that died was erroneous, as was found later when there 
was time to oheok them more thoroughly. Chose that died were 
of the following description* 

Calves, Yaarllnps. 2-yr. 3-yr T 4-yr. 5-yr. 7ery o}d. 
Males 4 3 1 

Males (steers) 1 5 

Females 10 1 3 111 

Unknown 4 

Total: 35. 


The situation as regards the spread of the disease 
among the herd soorca to have cleared tip, and all precautions 
possible are being token. 

In addition to scouring the country for several miles 
around the buffalo fare in search of dead buffalo, every effort 
was made to check up the live ones* The number su; posed to be 
in the herd has not all been located since the death of Kr. 
Prasier. There were supposed to have been 387 buffalo in this 
herd on January 1st. Two have been shipped away, and 36 have 
died. 399 head have been located, leaving 11 head short from 
the number oarried on our return. Acting Chief Ranger UoBride, 
who directed the search for the buffalo and did much hard rid- 
ing himself, is of the opinion that these can all be accounted 
for when snow leaves the ground. Be thinks some of them are 
wintering high up on Cache Creek, and that others died last 
fall on Specimen Ridge, where the snow is now too deep to 
ride through. 


The weather conditions continued reasonably good 
during the month of February, and all gene animals were able 
to procure plenty to eat without difficulty. /Reports indicate 
that several thousand elk are wintering in the Absaroka na- 
tional Forest outside of the park. These, however, are being 
well protected from poachers by special effort on the part of 
the U. S. Forest 3ervioe, which has a force of from 6 to 8 
rangers located in five different caapa In connection with this 
work. It was my intention to detail two rangers to assist in 
this work, but the epidemio among the buffalo gave us ouch ex- 
tra work; and, as the Forest Service wae able to bring in 
men from other Rational Forests In Montana whose services 
were not especially needed elsewhere, the servioes of our 
rangers was hardly necessary. 


■o sanitary work was done during the month, except 
the removal of ashes, waste, etc., from the buildings at 


Ho arrests were made during the month, and no viola- 
tion of law was reported. 



Moving picture shows have been held weekly for the 
general amusement of residents at Headquarters. 


Continued conatrnotion and repair of improvements 
under Olvll Bngineor Goodwin, under contract in Gardiner 
Canyon, and by the day on buildings at Tieadquartera* 

Kalntenanos and repair of buildings, water and 
sewer systems, power plant and telephone lines ; and repair 
of equipment by shop foroe, and painting of motor vehiolea* 

Special care of animals, including feeding them 
if it beoomos necessary, and patrols for poachers from all 

Very respectfully, 

Chester a* Llndsley, 

Acting Superintendent.